Solution to a Power Problems

Power Problem
Definition
Cause
Solution
Series 3 Protection Level
Series 3 Protection Level
Series 3 Protection Level
Power Failure
A total loss of utility power
Can be caused by a number of events: lightning strikes, downed power lines, grid over demands, accidents and natural disasters
Power Sag
Short term low voltage
Triggered by the startup of large loads, utility switching, utility equipment failure, lighting and power service that’s too small for the demand. In addition to crashes, sags can damage hardware
Power Surge
Short term high voltage
With voltages above 110% of nominal, surges can be triggered by a rapid reduction in power loads, heavy equipment being turned off, or by utility switching. The results can potentially damage hardware.
Brownout
Reduced line voltage for extended periods of a few minutes to a few days
Can be caused by an intentional utility voltage reduction to conserve power during peak demand periods or other heavy loads that exceed supply capacity.
Electrical Line Noise
High frequency waveform that piggyback on the line waveform
Can be caused by either RFI or EMI interference generated by transmitters, welding devices, SCR driven printers, lightning etc.
High Voltage Spike
Instant and dramatic increase in line voltage
Can be caused by lightning strike and can send line voltages to levels in excess of 6,000 volts. A spike almost always results in data loss or hardware damage.
Frequency Variation
A change in frequence stability
Resulting from generator or small cogeneration sites being loaded and unloaded. Frequency variation can cause erratic operation, data loss, system crashes and equipment damage.
Switching Transients
Instantaneous high voltage increase
Normal duration is shorter than a spike and generally falls in the range of nanoseconds.
Harmonic Distortion
Distortion of the normal waveform generally transmitted by nonlinear loads
Switched mode power supplies, variable speed motors and drives, copiers and fax machines are examples of non-linear loads. Can cause communication errors, overheating and hardware damage.
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